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Opinion Essay (C2): Формат. Структура. Образцы

Opinion Essay (C2): Формат. Структура. Образцы

Если вы направлены по этому адресу, значит в вашем сочинении пробемы с форматом, которые можно легко разрешить здесь. :)
Прочитав десятки сочинений, присылаемых сюда для комментирования и правки, прихожу к выводу, что многие авторы не знакомы с тем, как этот тип эссе должен / может строиться. А строиться он должен очень однотипно, без каких-либо хитростей и выкрутасов. Именно за точное следование формату вы можете набрать до 75% оценки.

Сюда буду отсылать всех, кто присылает бесформенное или неформатное эссе для ознакомления с его базовой структурой.


Структура Opinion Essay (ЕГЭ) (вариант 1)

INTROВводное предложение общего характера (о ситуации по проблеме в целом) {одно предложение}
Переформулировать тему своими словами. {одно сложное предложение или два простых}
{По желанию ...}

BODY (Основная часть)Para1:
...Четко выразить мнение по теме (первый раз). (1 предложение)

..........Аргумент 1 =>
..............Детализация (пояснение и/или примеры);

........... Аргумент 2 =>
.............. Детализация (пояснение и/или примеры);

{.......... Аргумент 3 =>
...............Детализация (пояснение и/или примеры)}

Para2:

.......... Аргумент оппонента (1 или 2)
.............. Детализация (пояснение и/или примеры);

.......... Контраргумент (т. е. свой аргумент, опровергающий аргумент противника, с пояснением)

CONCLUSIONЧетко выразить то же самое мнение, но другими словами + с кратким итоговым обощением.{+ по желанию «вкусовая добавка»: цитата по теме, поговорка, риторический вопрос, выражение надежды)

=====
Сразу отмечу, что существует несколько вариантов оформления, отличающихся минимально. По ходу событий буду добавлять в эту же ветку варианты структуры, пояснения к формату и рекомендации, связанные с форматом.

Сбда же, вероятно, буду помещать Model Essays и, возможно, cheatsheets («шпаргалки»: копилки полезных фраз (по темам и по формату), шаблоны).

Stay tuned!))
#1
Структура Opinion Essay (ЕГЭ) (вариант 2)

INTROВводное предложение общего характера (о ситуации по проблеме в целом) {одно предложение}
Переформулировать тему своими словами. {одно сложное предложение или два простых}
СВОЕ МНЕНИЕ (четко!){одно предложение}

BODY (Основная часть)Para1:
..........Аргумент 1 =>
..............Support / Детализация (пояснение и/или примеры);

Para2:
........... Аргумент 2 =>
..............Support / Детализация (пояснение и/или примеры);

{Para3 (факультативно)}:
{.......... Аргумент 3 =>
..............Support / Детализация (пояснение и/или примеры)}


Para4:
.......... Аргумент оппонента (1 или 2)
.............. Детализация (пояснение и/или примеры);

.......... Контраргумент (т. е. свой аргумент, опровергающий аргумент противника, с пояснением)

CONCLUSIONЧетко выразить то же самое мнение, но другими словами + с кратким итоговым обощением.{+ по желанию «вкусовая добавка»: цитата по теме, поговорка, риторический вопрос, выражение надежды)


В чем разница между первым и вторым вариантом layout?
Первый вариант:Свое мнение выражено в первом предложении основной части BODY , т. е. оно является главной мыслью абзаца. И все аргументы таким образом становятся развитием или доказательством этой главной мысли в пределах абзаца, а следовательно, нет необходимости выделять каждый аргумент в отдельный абзац.


Второй вариант:Свое мнение, выраженное в последнем предложении вступления INTRO, является главной мыслью всего сочинения. И в этом случае каждый аргумент является самостоятельным абзацем, каждый из которых доказывает тему сочинения.
#2
Animal Testing
Should animal testing be banned/restricted/allowed?


INTRO (варианты формулировок
Sentence 1 (Opening Sentence-1A)
Animal experiments are/have been widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.
Sentence 1 (Opening Sentence-1B)
The use of animals in research...->
......arouses/causes... OR
......has aroused/caused/... ->
..........much/a great deal/a lot of ->
..............debate / controversy / passion/etc.

Sentence 2
Some/many people //Some/Many scientists...
..... argue / believe / think /claim /consider (that)...... ->
...... (that) it is essential / important / vital...
. ->
to use laboratory animals for research /experiments (in order) to find cures for the world's major diseases.
Sentence 3
Others/other scientists/Opponents of these practices...->
..... argue / believe / think /claim /consider (that)
...... ->
...... (that) most experiments on/involving animals are…
...... (that) conducting animal testing of pharmaceuticals and chemicals are…
............ (are) cruel/barbaric and unnecessary (inaccurate/unreliable)

BODYIn my opinion,/ in my view,/...
Opinion A (Against animal experiments)
Experimenting on animals is unacceptable because:
...it causes suffering to animals
....the benefits to human beings are not proven
...any benefits to human beings that animal testing does provide could be produced in other ways


Opinion B (In favour of animal experiments)
Experimenting on animals is acceptable if (and only if):
...suffering is minimised in all experiments
...human benefits gained from experiments cannot/could not be obtained by using other methods


Ideas to consider (to support your opinion):

PRO (experiments are necessary)
PRO (experiments are necessary):
...might find a cure for some of our most serious diseases (cancer, AIDS)
... to test drugs to find how it will affect a human


CONTRA (experiments are unacceptable,
Experiments are unacceptable, cannot be justified):


...Results obtained from experimenting on animals are often unreliable because...
...Scientists often do not benefit from testing on animals because...
.......(because) animals are different from us/people and react differently to drugs. (E. g.: certain drugs (steroids, adrenaline, insulin and some antibiotics) toxic to many animals are medically beneficial to humans.)

...Not only are results obtained from animal testing unreliable, but animal testing puts animals through a lot of unnecessary suffering:
......Laboratory animals are kept in appalling conditions. + We often kill them in /after experiments.

......Animals feel pain and emotion and many are intelligent. They suffer (greatly) in any form of captivity. Humans have no right to put (innocent) animals through…
.......(through) a lot of unnecessary suffering.
…...(through) such torture.

...Using animals to test beauty and household products such as cosmetics, shampoos, perfume, detergents (стиральные порошки) is immoral.


Some people claim that experiments on animals are done for serious medical reasons only. What they forget is that in the majority of cases they are not. There seems no excuse for using animals to test products like cosmetics and shampoos.

CONCLUSION (варианты формулировок через/All things considered,/To sum up, /In conclusion,/ ...,
I do not believe using animals in laboratories is justifiable (оправдано) unless it is for serious medical research.//= I am very much against /I am completely opposed to using animals in laboratories unless...// = I am convinced that using animals in laboratories is unacceptable (неприемлемо, недопустимо) unless it is for research into diseases like cancer.

... it is wrong/unacceprable/... to use
to use animals if alternative testing methods would/can/could produce equally valid results.

Any other use should be made illegal. //Animals deserve our respect and our consideration.
#3
Сюда (временно) буду заносить ссылки на полезные комментарии, которые посетители форума смогут использовать для самоподготовки.

Рассклассифицирую постепенно (слишком много накопилось), возможно, понадобится открыть самостоятельную тему.

Пока ссылки группирую по следующим направлениям:

Vocabulary & IDEAS

IDEAS TO CONSIDER
City vs Country
IDEAS | +
План основной части приблизительно таков:
My opinion: the city is a better environment than the CS // is a better place to live in // ... (general idea)

1) opportunities:
---- jobs (well-paid, a wide variety)
---- better education, more qualified teachers
---- healthcare
---- shopping malls

---- etc

2) leisure-time facilities/activities // recreation(al) facilities
---- museums
---- theatres, cinemas, clubs
---- health/fitness centres, / sporting venues
etc


However/On the other hand,.....
.....there are those who believe that the city is no longer a good place to live in (because…)
OR:

The opponents of city life/of living in the city believe / claim / think /etc that …(либо ругать город, либо хвалить деревню, либо и то и др). + Свой контраргумент обязательно.

Простейший, но не всегда лучший сп-б присоединить контраргумент:
The truth is that... OR
What they forget is that/is the fact that...

Другие способы присоединения контраргумента см. ...

..

Grammar Notesresearch (Uncountable! sg)


Техника написания эссеУчимся избегать повторов в сочинении.
Подбираем синонимы:
Teenagers/Teens/Young people/etc
Богатый (1){синонимы}

Перефразируем задание (coming soon)

Техника написания эссе (на материале фрагментов присланных работ):
[textarea]Оформление «спора с оппонетом» (на материале Animal Testing)
Оформление вывода (на материале Animal Testing)


Примеры оценивания эссе:
Пример оценки эссе (на материале Animal Testing)
#4
MODEL ESSAYS/Образцы сочинений4 paragraph essays (Pattern 1)
Cars should be banned from the centres of big cities.
Life the past was much quieter /safer / more secure (vs Modern Life)
Language Learning: Abroad or At Home (пособ. Музлановой)

5 paragraph essays (Pattern 2)

Fashion (People spend too much time and money on fashion){5 paragraph essay from Virginia Evans}
Mobile Phones in school
#5
[size=90]
Usage/Vocabulary Notes(В этой рубрике рассматриваются лексико-грамматические особенности часто употребляемых с ошибками слов и выражений: сочетаемость, исчисляемость, коллокации и проч.)
Много (1): Many / Much = a lot of/lots of/plenty of? Как правильно.
Много (2): Lots of/A lot of / Plenty of/etc (SV agreement)/Согласование по числу
Comparing A and B
Save (sb) doing sth (избавить/избавлять от необходимости)
provide/offer a wide range of (opportunities/facilities/amenities/etc)
Include vs Involve
benefit, beneficial
| +
Обратите внимание на хорошее для многих сочинений слово benefit и его производное beneficial, чтобы избегать затасканных useful.
Попробуйте для тренировки (пригодится во многих сочинениях), ту же мысль выразить через слово benefit.

Конструкция такова:
X benefits from Y (X получает пользу, выигрывает от X)
Y benefits X (Y приносит пользу X)
Examples:
…The changes will benefit the company/society in more ways than one. (Перемены принесут пользу обществу)
…The company/society will benefit from the changes. (Общество выиграет от перемен, получит пользу)
More examples are coming soon (добавлю примеры, которые проявят полезность этого слова, чуть позже -- надеюсь, найду время)
Stay tuned!)

essential/crucial/vital

(NEW!)
Наконец/И последнее: Finally/Lastly vs At last?


Как правильно выразить по-английски:
Вред(но): вредить, вредное воздействие
влиять НА; оказывать (сильное /отрицательное/etc) влияние/воздействие НА
заниматься/заняться спортом
cron